Abutments are connecting element that supports the crown and attaches it to the dental implant fixture. The implant fixture looks like a small screw component that attaches to the jawbone. There are several types of dental abutments
in the marketing depending on the type of dentures corrections that are needed.
Partial denture abutments
These are unique denture abutments in that they incorporate tooth elements such as guide planes, rest seats, recontouring of the tooth especially where the teeth are shaped oddly.Bridge dentures
These dentures are made in such a way that the way the tooth is inserted parallel to other teeth.
These are prosthetic implants. They are made from a variety of materials such as surgical stainless steel, gold, and titanium. Modern technology has brought about other abutment materials such as zirconia, which is white ceramic. The white ceramic is a better complement of the dental implant restoration.
The ceramic abutments should be used with care. However, they do not have as much compressive strength as that of the noble metals, gold, and titanium. Metal abutments are more common in the posterior molars due to masticatory forces that play in these areas. The implant abutments do not need to be parallel to the long axis of the implant. It can still be used when the implant is at an angle of inclination from the prosthesis.
When installing a three-piece implant, the abutment is fixed to the implant with a screw butt joint. It is the tightened with a predetermined torque. This is usually done with a dental torque wrench. If the screw is not well tightened, it may cause the crown to come loose.
Two piece implants
In a two-piece implant, the dental abutment is cold-welded, or morse tapered on the implant. The procedure prevents microbial leakage and colonization between the crown and the abutment that may lead to inflammatory reactions and possible bone loss. Morse taping also improves the seal performance.
Single piece implants with abutment combinations are not feasible in most cases due to the reason that bone angulations that are not in line with the long axis of the tooth that is being restored and thus would result in an improper crown anatomy. However, many manufacturers have come up with new technologies for primary abutments on the single crowns placed over the abutments. Most of the single piece implants are done using the flapless procedure where the crown is placed a short time after placing the implant.